Neoen acknowledges the Nukunu people, Traditional Owners of the land on which Crystal Brook Energy Park will harvest and store the energy of the wind and sun. We pay our respects to their Elders past and present.


Our projects use premium quality wind turbines, solar panels, and battery technology from leading manufacturers.

We select these manufacturers through a competitive tender process for each project. This ensures the project’s Cost of Energy is low.

All components come with long warranty periods: wind turbines and solar panels are generally warranted for 25 years, and batteries for 15 years.

The project will operate for 25 to 30 years. After this, all infrastructure will be removed and the site will be rehabilitated. Or, new turbines and panels may be re-installed for a further 25-30 years, before they are removed.

When properly maintained, wind turbines remain highly efficient. Depending on the local environment, solar panels typically only lose around 0.5% efficiency each year. Depending on usage patterns, batteries can retain up to 80% of their capacity after 10 years.

At the end of a project life cycle, the turbines, solar panels and batteries are removed and the site is rehabilitated.

This is a commitment we make to the landholders and the State government, which is in the development approval and our contract with the host landholders.

After the assets are removed, most of the materials are reclaimed or recycled. This is because the steel, copper, lithium and other materials they are made of retain significant value.


The construction timeframe depends on the project size and the number of workers deployed on site. For a 100 MW power plant, an 8 to 14-month timeframe is typical, with a peak construction period of 2 to 3 months. A large project like our Crystal Brook Energy Park will take around 24 months to construct with a longer peak construction.
Neoen’s projects use premium quality wind turbines and battery technology provided by leading manufacturers. This is selected through a competitive process for each project. All components come with long warranty periods, wind turbines are generally warrantied for 20 to 25 years.

A wind farm will typically operate for between 25 and 30 years.

Wind turbines are designed to convert wind into mechanical energy by rotating the turbine blades. The mechanical energy is converted into electricity via a generator in the nacelle, which is sent directly to the grid. The electricity generated by the turbine is proportional to the wind speed cubed. As an example, a wind turbine in 8m/s wind will produce about 8 times as much electricity as a wind turbine in 4m/s wind. This is why it’s important to place turbines in high and consistently windy areas to achieve the lowest cost power generation for consumers.
Generally speaking wind turbines have a tip height of between 150 and 270 metres with approximately 500 to 1000 metres between each turbine. However, this varies from project to project.

Economic: Larger turbines generate more and cheaper energy because they can access higher wind speeds at higher elevations. They also generate savings in civil and electrical costs (foundations, roads, cables, etc.).

Visual: Larger turbines are spaced further apart (up to 1000m) and have lower rotational speeds than smaller turbines.

Noise: Larger turbines don’t necessarily make more noise than smaller turbines, due to their slower speed and improvements in blade design.

All turbines in South Australia are subject to strict noise limits imposed by the Environmental Protection Authority. The noise impacts that are permitted are the same regardless of turbine sizing.

Environmental: Larger turbines require less concrete, roads and cables per unit of energy generated. This reduces carbon emissions, construction traffic, and vegetation clearance. Their blades are also above the flight paths of most birds, which greatly reduces the impact to avifauna.

We acknowledge that wind turbines do impact the landscape but will work with communities to ensure our wind farms have the least possible detrimental impact on visual amenity. Neoen encourage individuals and groups that have questions about visual impact and remedies to engage with us early.

Overall, we consider that the immediate and long-term benefits which wind farms bring to communities offset any loss of visual amenity.

There are nearly 200,000 wind turbines installed worldwide — many of them in more densely populated areas close to houses.

Some 17 reviews of research literature conducted by leading health and research organisations from all over the world, including the World Health Organisation, Australia’s National Health and Medical Research Centre, the UK Health Protection Agency and the US National Research Council, have concluded there is no published evidence to positively link wind turbines with adverse health effects.

To achieve development approval, a wind farm must demonstrate that noise levels at neighbouring residences will meet strict noise limits under the Environmental Protection Authority’s (EPA) 2009 guidelines.

 Noise levels are then tested after operation starts to ensure compliance. If these limits are exceeded, turbine operators must shut down or de-rate turbines to achieve compliance.

 The EPA limits are designed to ensure that noise from a wind farm is not intrusive for the average person.

 The baseline limit for noise audible outside a dwelling in Primary Production-zoned land is 40db(A). This is comparable to a quiet conversation in another room of a house.

At the end of the wind farm’s life cycle (typically 25-30 years) the wind farm is decommissioned and we remove the wind turbines and all above ground structures and rehabilitate the site. This is a condition of the wind farm’s development approval from the State government and our agreement with the landowners.

During decommissioning most of the materials the wind farm is made from can be reclaimed or recycled.


When photons of light shine on a solar panel, they knock electrons free on an electrical circuit and produce electricity.

 Inverters regulate the accumulation of electricity from a selection of solar panels. The substation distributes the electricity to the grid.

 The angle at which the light hits the panel affects the amount of energy that can be harvested from it. This is why tracking systems help to optimise solar generation.

A solar array is a collection of solar panels that generate electricity as a system.

Dimensions: Most solar panels are 1m wide by 2m long. Arrays of solar panels are usually 30, 60 or 90 meters long.

 Height: Depending on final design decisions and the time of the day (due to movements from solar trackers), the height of panels is likely to be between 1.5 and 3.5 metres.

 Spacing: Depending on final design decisions, rows of panels may be spaced 6 to 14 metres apart.

 Wide spacing reduces shadowing on the panels in the early morning and late afternoon, and also allows the land to continue to be used for sheep grazing.

We understand that solar arrays do alter the visual character of an area. This is why we work with communities to ensure they have the lowest possible impact on visual amenity.

We encourage individuals and groups with questions about visual impact and solutions to engage with us early.

 Overall, we believe that emissions reductions – as well as the immediate and long-term benefits that solar farms bring to communities – offset some loss of visual amenity.

Photovoltaic panels are designed to absorb light and reflect as little light as possible (generally around 2%) to maximise their efficiency.

This is why solar farms are not considered reflective and have been installed at or near a number of airports.

Solar panels are placed on more than 25% of Australian homes, and have been on homes across the world for the past 15 years.

No health issues have been associated with solar panels, and the Goyder Renewables Zone will use the same type of technology.

Solar farms create only very slight audible noise during operations (from the inverters).

People in nearby dwellings will not be able to hear it.

There is very minimal fire risk associated with photovoltaic panels or solar farms.

There is also a cleared vegetation zone around the edges of the solar farms to prevent fire spreading. This is complemented by a strict vegetation management plan.


We will use lithium-ion battery technology from leading manufacturers. These manufacturers are selected through a separate competitive tender process. All components come with long warranty periods. Batteries generally have a 15-year warranty. However, they retain the majority of their capacity right up to this point and are often capable of operating beyond the 15-year mark depending on market conditions and other factors.

The battery will store energy in times of high production and release energy in times of high demand, similar to how a battery on a home solar system works. It will also help to stabilise the grid in a few different ways – it has an emergency response mode to prevent blackouts and it can maintain voltage and frequency levels.

Battery storage can reduce costs for consumers in three ways:

  • supporting more wind and solar, which are now the cheapest forms of power
  • increasing competition and pushing electricity prices down
  • helping to avoid blackouts and the associated costs

We will undertake a fire risk management plan prior to construction and work with the local CFA/RFS to mitigate any fire risk. We will use premium battery technology that is tested and certified to national and international standards. The installed system will have appropriate internal management and fault monitoring and detection systems, reducing the overall risk of fire.

The battery will use similar technology to the batteries that are being increasingly installed in homes, just on a larger scale. There are no known health risks associated with properly maintained large-scale battery installations.

We make a commitment that all above-ground infrastructure will be removed and the site rehabilitated when the project ceases to operate. After removal, a large percentage of the material in the batteries will be reclaimed or recycled; over 60% of materials especially critical minerals will be recovered for re-use.


A 2012 study by SKM on the economic benefits of wind farms in Australia found that, for every 50 MW in capacity, a wind farm delivered these benefits:


  • Direct employment of up to 48 construction workers, with each worker typically spending around $25,000 in the local area in shops, restaurants, hotels and other services (a total of up to $1.2 million)
  • Indirect employment of approximately 160 people locally, 504 state jobs, and 795 nationwide jobs

Renewable energy projects are now the cheapest sources of new energy generation.

Wind and solar generation produce energy at less than $50 per megawatt hour (depending on the quality of the renewable resource and the size of the project).

The costs of other sources of generation are:

  • Gas generation: >$90 per megawatt hour
  • Existing coal generation: approximately $40 per megawatt hour
  • New coal generation: approximately $130 per megawatt hour

We do not require government subsidies to finance our projects. We finance our projects through a combination of our own shareholder equity and long-term bank loans.

 We sometimes enter commercial agreements with governments or businesses to sell the power our projects produce.

We pay for any upgrades to State or Local Government or landowner roads required for transporting wind turbine components to site. If we damage roads, we will pay for repairs.

We pay for any electrical transmission upgrades that are needed to connect and operate the project in the electricity grid.

This includes construction and maintenance costs for the life of the project.

All Neoen projects meet strict State and Federal Government regulations and are assessed under these regulations. We work closely with governments to ensure we meet all legal requirements and exceed these requirements wherever possible.

Studies into the potential impact of wind farm developments on property prices, including by the NSW Valuer-General (2009) and Urbis (2016), have not found any consistent evidence to link wind farms with adverse impacts on property prices.

 This is particularly so for primary production rather than lifestyle properties.

Health & Culture

There are nearly 200,000 wind turbines installed worldwide — many of them in more densely populated areas close to houses.

Some 17 reviews of research literature conducted by leading health and research organisations from all over the world, including the World Health Organisation, Australia’s National Health and Medical Research Centre, the UK Health Protection Agency and the US National Research Council, have concluded there is no published evidence to positively link wind turbines with adverse health effects.

Before it can operate, a wind farm has to demonstrate that noise levels at neighbouring residences will meet strict noise limits. These limits are designed to ensure that noise from a wind farm is not intrusive for the average person.

Monitoring of dust levels during construction is a basic requirement of each project. Dust generating activities are assessed during windy conditions and are stopped and rescheduled where adequate control of dust generation cannot be achieved.

Visual observation of machinery is undertaken during site inspections in addition to daily pre-start checks which ensure all machinery has appropriate emission control devices, is in good working order and is maintained correctly.

The land on which the Crystal Brook Energy Park is proposed is part of the ancestral country of the Nukunu people.

We comply with all legislation, including laws regarding the protection of cultural heritage. A cultural heritage assessment forms part of initial studies as does consultation with local Indigenous groups to ensure cultural heritage is protected.

We also have strong Aboriginal workforce participation targets, and strive to foster a deep, cooperative relationship with Aboriginal stakeholders across South Australia.


We engage specialist consultants to undertake detailed flora and fauna surveys to determine the ecological attributes of the land.

On all of our projects, we aim to minimise the impact on flora and fauna by designing projects to be constructed outside areas of high conservation significance and adopting control measures during the construction process.

During the detailed design, wind turbines will be micro-sited to minimise the potential impact on fauna habitat with turbine heights selected to minimize the overlap between rotor swept area and bird flight heights.

Other mitigation measures include preparing management plans, identifying ‘no-go zones’ within the project site and conducting pre-clearance surveys.

We also consult with government departments of environment and biodiversity throughout the development, construction and operational stages of projects, as well as local non-government organisations.

We built and operate the Hornsdale Wind Farm across numerous properties near Jamestown in South Australia.

Stock, including sheep and cattle, take a couple of days to get used to wind turbines, then are very comfortable with them. They rub up against turbines and use the shade from the towers during summer.

There are also some indications that in dry areas, condensation and run-off from the panels may support a higher growth rate of feed along the panel rows.

We also own and operate the Coleambally, Griffith, and Parkes solar farms on multiple properties in NSW, as well as Numurkah in Victoria. Sheep are grazing on many of our solar farms and we have conducted a successful sheep grazing trial at Parkes Solar Farm.

While wind farms are sometimes said to threaten birds, an energy governance study completed in Singapore has shown that wind farms harm 17 times fewer birds per unit of electricity produced than fossil fuel generation.

Studies show that wind farms are probably responsible for impacting birds at rates that are:
• 400 times fewer than cars
• 500 times fewer than pesticides
• 1200 times fewer than high-tension wires

Larger, modern turbines have blades that are well above the flight paths of the vast majority of birds.

The main exception is raptors, and we carry out detailed nest surveys and place generous buffers of 1 to 2km around any viable nest that is found. There is also evidence to suggest that raptors adjust to the presence of turbines and will avoid the blades.